The turn of the 19th century would see the first movement toward Prison reformand by the s, the first state prisons and correctional facilities were built, thereby inaugurating the modern prison facilities available today. Reformers such as Benjamin Rush came up with a solution that would enable the continued used of forced labor, while keeping disorderly conduct and abuse out of the eyes of the public.
The substantial expansion of transportation was the first major innovation in eighteenth-century British penal practice. The Mamertine Prison was located within a sewer system beneath ancient Rome and contained a large network of dungeons where prisoners were held in squalid conditions,  contaminated with human waste.
She also began a system of supervision and required the women to sew and to read the Bible. This prison was modeled on what became known as the "Pennsylvania system" or "separate system"and placed all prisoners into solitary cells with nothing other than religious literature, and forced them to be completely silent to reflect on their wrongs.
Some Ancient Greek philosophers, such as Platobegan to develop ideas of using punishment to reform offenders instead of simply using it as retribution. The laws quickly drew criticism from a humanitarian perspective as cruel, exploitative and degrading and from a utilitarian perspective as failing to deter crime and delegitimizing the state in the eyes of the public.
This theory, referred to as deterrenceclaims that the primary purpose of prisons is to be so harsh and terrifying that they deter people from committing crimes out of fear of going to prison.
But by faith in the efficacy of legal reform had declined as statutory changes had no discernible effect on the level of crime, and the prisons, where prisoners shared large rooms and booty including alcohol, had become riotous and prone to escapes.
This notion of punishment as vengeance or retaliation can also be found in many other legal codes from early civilizations, including the ancient Sumerian codes, the Indian Manama Dharma Astrathe Hermes Trismegistus of Egypt, and the Israelite Mosaic Law.
InFry was able to found a prison school for the children who were imprisoned with their parents. The suspension of transport also prompted the use of prisons for punishment and the initial start of a prison building program.
Prisoners picking oakum at Coldbath Fields Prison in London, c. Gaols at the time were run as business ventures, and contained both felons and debtors; the latter were often housed with their wives and younger children.
The best known of these early legal codes is the Code of Hammurabiwritten in Babylon around BC.
Forced labor on public works projects was also a common form of punishment. The Transportation Act made this option available for lesser crimes, or offered it by discretion as a longer-term alternative to the death penalty, which could theoretically be imposed for the growing number of offenses.
With the widely used alternative of penal transportation halted in the s, the immediate need for additional penal accommodations emerged. Given the undeveloped institutional facilities, old sailing vesselstermed hulkswere the most readily available and expandable choice to be used as places of temporary confinement.
By the end of the 17th century, houses of correction were absorbed into local prison facilities under the control of the local justice of the peace. It was the first facility to make any medical services available to prisoners. Katorga A world apart inside penitentiary were harsh work camps established in the 17th century in Russiain remote underpopulated areas of Siberia and the Russian Far Eastthat had few towns or food sources.
Punishment usually consisted of physical forms of punishment, including capital punishment, mutilationflagellation whippingbrandingand non-physical punishments, such as public shaming rituals like the stocks.
By54 prisons had adopted the disciplinary system advocated by the SIPD. While sentencing to transportation continued, the act instituted a punishment policy of hard labour instead. A world apart inside penitentiary views influenced the establishment of the first prisons used as criminal rehabilitation centers.
However, what actually ended up happening was frequent spectacles of disorderly conduct by the convict work crews, and the generation of sympathetic feelings from the citizens who witnessed the mistreatment of the convicts.
However, an important innovation at the time was the Bridewell House of Corrections, located at Bridewell Palace in London, which resulted in the building of other houses of correction. The aim of this was rehabilitative: The second theory, which saw prisons as a form of rehabilitation or moral reform, was based on religious ideas that equated crime with sin, and saw prisons as a place to instruct prisoners in Christian morality, obedience and proper behavior.
Besides the economic benefits of providing a free source of hard labor, the proponents of the new penal code also thought that this would deter criminal activity by making a conspicuous public example of consequences of breaking the law.
France also sent criminals to overseas penal colonies, including Louisianain the early 18th century. This introduced solitary confinement, religious instruction, a labor regime, and proposed two state penitentiaries one for men and one for women.
He proposed wide-ranging reforms to the system, including the housing of each prisoner in a separate cell; the requirements that staff should be professional and paid by the government, that outside inspection of prisons should be imposed, and that prisoners should be provided with a healthy diet and reasonable living conditions.
One of the most notable Roman prisons was the Mamertine Prisonestablished around B. After the unification of Italy inthe government reformed the repressive and arbitrary prison system they inherited, and modernized and secularized criminal punishment by emphasizing discipline and deterrence.
At a time when the implementation of capital punishment for a variety of relatively trivial offences was on the decline, the notion of incarceration as a form of punishment and correction held great appeal to reform-minded thinkers and politicians.
In the first half of the 19th century, capital punishment came to be regarded as inappropriate for many crimes that it had previously been carried out for, and by the midth century, imprisonment had replaced the death penalty for the most serious offenses except for murder.
They suggested that prisoners be sent to secluded "houses of repentance" where they would be subjected out of the view of the public to "bodily pain, labour, watchfulness, solitude, and silence However, these were never built due to disagreements in the committee and pressures from wars with Franceand gaols remained a local responsibility.
Development of the modern prison[ edit ] The theory of the modern prison system was born in London, influenced by the utilitarianism of Jeremy Bentham.
Pentonville prison opened inbeginning a trend of ever increasing incarceration rates and the use of prison as the primary form of crime punishment.
Siberia quickly gained its fearful connotation of punishment.Look Inside. Read An Excerpt. Buy. A World Apart Women, Prison, and Life Behind Bars Women, Prison, and Life Behind Bars By Cristina Rathbone About A World Apart “Life in a women’s prison is full of surprises,” writes Cristina Rathbone in her landmark account of life at MCI-Framingham.
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And so it is. After two intense court battles with prison officials/5(31). Ideals of the Penitentiary. Topics: Prison A World Apart: Inside Penitentiary Research Paper orld zA World Apart 1 A World Apart Farrah Anglada-Lauer Axia College of University of Phoenix 2 The first penitentiary was opened in a wing of the Philadelphia’s Walnut Street Jail in A World Apart: Inside Penitentiary Research Paper orld zA World Apart 1 A World Apart Farrah Anglada-Lauer Axia College of University of Phoenix 2 The first penitentiary was opened in a wing of the Philadelphia’s Walnut Street Jail in This penitentiary operated with the belief that silence and labor was the appropriate .Download